Cooperatives, associations, partnerships, non-profit organizations (NPOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are core elements of the Social Economy. Social Economy as an economic and societal development approach could support the sustainable rural and environmental management in South East Asian countries. Examples for Social Economy enterprises are microlending institutions, fishing and rice cooperatives in Vietnam and Thailand, pepper and pottery associations in Cambodia or rural and small scale industry commodities and service associations. The Social Economy needs just and equal distribution of property, but also innovative property tax collection models in order to guarantee sustainable financial support by the governments. The implementation faces several challenges. Existing private property or leasehold rights and large agricultural investment funds could lead to the exclusion of small and medium landowners, family- based farmers and to a lack of institutional support from higher political levels. A system combining different forms of public and private property and good land governance may be the means to bridge the gap between the private right to acquire natural resources and the needs of the Social Economy. The division of agricultural land, natural commodities and the means of production in a comprehensive and equal way between the people is of fundamental importance for the Asian states.
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