In sub-Saharan Africa women comprise a large proportion of the agricultural labor force, yet they are consistently found to be less productive than male farmers. The gender gap in agricultural productivity-measured by the value of agricultural produce per unit of cultivated land-ranges from 4-25 percent, depending on the country and the crop.1 The World Bank Africa Gender Innovation Lab, UN Women, and the UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative jointly produced a report to quantify the cost of the gender gap and the potential gains from closing that gap in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda.
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Library ResourceReports & ResearchPolicy Papers & BriefsDecember, 2015Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Africa, Eastern Africa
Library ResourceReports & ResearchPolicy Papers & BriefsOctober, 2015
Transport plays a crucial role in connecting people to goods and services and fostering sustainable development. The literature links improved transport infrastructure to economic growth and poverty reduction through five key mechanisms: (1) reducing transport and production costs, (2) creating jobs, (3) expanding productive capacity, (4) improving access to markets and basic services like health and education, and (5) reducing prices of final goods and services.
Library ResourceApril, 2015North Macedonia
This country note for Macedonia is part
of a series of country briefs that summarize information
relevant to climate change and agriculture for four pilot
countries in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Region, with
a particular focus on climate and crop projections,
adaptation options, policy development and institutional
involvement. The note series has been developed to provide a
baseline of knowledge on climate change and agriculture for
Library ResourceJanuary, 2015Ethiopia
Risk-aversion has generally been found
to decrease in income. This may lead one to expect that poor
countries will be more risk-averse than rich countries.
Recent comparative findings with students, however, suggest
the opposite, giving rise to a risk-income paradox. This
paper tests this paradox by measuring the risk preferences
of more than 500 household heads spread over the highlands
of Ethiopia and finds high degrees of risk tolerance. The
Library ResourceAugust, 2015
This article examines the effect of
water pricing policies on farmers’ water saving behaviors,
using original water user group (WUG) data from a reservoir
irrigation system in China. The introduction of volumetric
water pricing at the group level, to replace area-based
pricing, induces institutional change to prevent each
member’s overuse of water when the volumetric price levels
are moderate. Depending on the initial conditions, the
Library ResourceJanuary, 2015
This paper uses farm panel data from
China to examine the dynamics of land transactions, machine
investments, and the demand for machine services. Recently,
China's agriculture has experienced a large expansion
of machine rentals and machine services provided by
specialized agents, which has contributed to mechanization
of agricultural production. The empirical results show that
an increase in nonagricultural wage rates leads to expansion
Library ResourceJuly, 2015Senegal
Launched in 2011, the Second Sustainable
and Participatory Energy Management Project (PROGEDE II) for
Senegal has been hailed for effectively mainstreaming a
gender perspective into an energy project. Under the
project, women have participated more in decision making;
developed skills in technical production, entrepreneurship,
and organizational management; and benefitted from increased incomes.
Library ResourcePolicy Papers & BriefsJanuary, 2016Latin America and the Caribbean
The main objective of this Economic and Sector Work (ESW) is to identify opportunities for stronger linkages between domestic agricultural supply chains and the tourism sector in the OECS, and to outline priority interventions with potential to strengthen these linkages. Since this topic has been analyzed in a number of studies, the approach for this ESW is not to conduct yet another comprehensive study.
Library ResourceJuly, 2015Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa
While scholars agree on the importance
of land rental markets for structural transformation in
rural areas, evidence on the extent and nature of their
operation, including potential obstacles to their improved
functioning, remains limited. This study uses
household-level data from six countries to start filling
this gap and derive substantive as well as methodological
lessons. The paper finds that rental markets transfer land