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Showing items 1 through 9 of 13.
  1. Library Resource
    May, 2013

    China has a very high prevalence rate of
    cigarette smoking. According to a 1996 Chinese national
    survey, 63% of adult males (age 15 and over) and 3.8% of
    adult females were current smokers (Chinese Academy of
    Preventive Medicine, 1997). These prevalence rates indicate
    that there are over 320 million cigarette smokers in China,
    which accounts for nearly one-third of the smokers in the
    world (Collishaw, 1998). Moreover, it has been estimated

  2. Library Resource
    June, 2013

    Turkey has become one of the largest
    consumers of cigarettes, while world cigarette consumption
    declined by 4 percent between 1990 and 1999. The rapid
    increase in tobacco consumption in Turkey will cause a large
    increase in the burden of disease and premature death in
    years to come. Global evidence also shows that there is a
    set of policies and interventions that can be highly
    effective in reducing tobacco use, encouraging smokers to

  3. Library Resource
    August, 2012

    Irrigation is crucial to China's
    agricultural productivity. This report reviews the history
    of water irrigation in China. It examines the first Bank
    supported water project to propose both physical
    rehabilitation and management reform. Local and
    international experience has shown that participatory
    irrigation management by farmers (PIM) contribute to
    institutional improvement. The report looks at

  4. Library Resource
    Reports & Research
    August, 2013

    the authors examine how economic activity and market participation are distributed across space. Applying a nonparametric von Thunen model to Nepalese data, the authors uncover a strong spatial division of labor. Nonfarm employment is concentrated in and around cities, while agricultural wage employment dominates villages located further away. Vegetables are produced near urban centers. Paddy and commercial crops are more important at intermediate distances. Isolated villages revert to self-subsistence.

  5. Library Resource
    August, 2012

    The note examines the transfer of
    knowledge from one generation to the next, and from country
    to country, through trading ties, and social interactions
    which has raised knowledge sharing activities within Africa,
    and elsewhere. Such activities have reinforced the
    universality of indigenous knowledge, and, despite
    geographical differences, the note looks at the Sodic Lands
    Reclamation Project in India, as a good example of

  6. Library Resource
    June, 2012

    As pesticide traders are important sources of information about the health impacts of pesticides, a crucial understanding of their perception is necessary to guide further pesticide information dissemination efforts through this channel. To this end, a 2003 survey of 110 Bangladeshi pesticide traders was conducted with questions on the pesticides in stock, knowledge and training in pesticide use and handling, sources of information, protective measures, and health effects.

  7. Library Resource
    June, 2013

    Turkmenistan's unique approach to
    land reform and farm restructuring has produced a
    significant shift to individual or household-based farming,
    with more than three-quarters of the arable land leased to
    individual households or small groups. Most leaseholders
    consider this land to be rightfully theirs, and they expect
    to keep it in the future, either as private owners, or
    through extension of their leasehold. However, individual

  8. Library Resource
    June, 2012

    In the wake of reforms to establish a free market in land-use rights, Vietnam is experiencing a pronounced rise in rural landlessness. To some observers this is a harmless by-product of a more efficient economy, while to others it signals the return of the pre-socialist class-structure, with the rural landless at the bottom of the economic ladder. The authors' theoretical model suggests that removing restrictions on land markets will increase landlessness among the poor, but that there will be both gainers and losers, with uncertain impacts on aggregate poverty.

  9. Library Resource
    February, 2013

    Agriculture sector growth has made a
    powerful contribution to post-war economic recovery in
    Tajikistan, accounting for approximately one third of
    overall economic growth from 1998 to 2004. Sector output
    increased by 65 percent in real terms during this period,
    and has now returned to the level extant at independence in
    1990. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) has also increased, by
    3 percent per year. Despite this progress, there is

  10. Library Resource
    May, 2014

    The extent to which households should be
    allowed to transfer their land rights in post-socialist
    transition economies is of considerable policy interest. The
    authors use data from Vietnam, a transition country that
    allows rental and sales of land use rights, to identify
    factors conducive to the development of land markets and to
    assess the extent to which land transfers enhance productive
    efficiency and transfer land to the poor. They find that

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