In pastoral societies women face many challenges. Some describe these as a ‘double burden’ –
that is, as pastoralists and as women. However, pastoral women may obtain a significant degree
of protection from customary law even if customary institutions are male-dominated. In periods
of change (economic, social, political), this protection may be lost, and without protection from
statutory laws, women are in danger of “falling between two stools” (Adoko and Levine 2009). A
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Library ResourceConference Papers & ReportsJuly, 2017Tanzania, Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa
Library ResourceConference Papers & ReportsNovember, 2017Tanzania, Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa
In Tanzania, ongoing land insecurity is a structural cause of food insecurity particularly for
pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and small-scale crop farmers leading to land use conflicts,
compromised access to resources including grazing and water and rangeland degradation.
Land tenure security and management can be improved through village land use planning (VLUP)
and land certification – namely the issuing of certificates of customary rights of occupancy
(CCROs). In situations where villages share resources such as grazing areas and water, joint village
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