Citizenship is an abstract concept and therefore great care must be taken in explaining what it means in practice and what can effectively be done in the context of development interventions and policy. Development projects which enhance the ability of marginalised groups to access and influence decision-making bodies are implicitly if not explicitly working with concepts of citizenship. Citizenship is about concrete institutions, policy and structures and the ways in which people can shape them using ideas of rights and participation.
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Library ResourceTraining Resources & ToolsPolicy Papers & BriefsJanuary, 2004Slovenia, Liechtenstein, Bangladesh, Slovakia, El Salvador, Croatia, Chile, Zimbabwe, Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Australia, Tanzania, Poland, India, Brazil, Czech Republic, Eastern Europe, Global, Central America, Eastern Africa, South America, Southern Africa, Eastern Asia, Caribbean, Southern Asia, Central Asia
Library ResourceJanuary, 2005Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Moldova, Belarus, South Africa, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tanzania, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Brazil, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean
This brief explores the reform of land tenure institutions which re-emerged in the 1990s, and asks if these reforms are any more gender sensitive than those of the past?The paper highlights that a focus of the recent reforms has been on land titling, designed to promote security of tenure and stimulate land markets. The reforms have often been driven by domestic and external neoliberal coalitions, with funding from global and regional organisations which have argued that private property rights are essential for a dynamic agricultural sector.
Library ResourceJanuary, 2004Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Armenia, Russia, Europe
This paper examines how, over the past 10 years, Kyrgyzstan has privatised most of its agricultural land and distributed it to individual households. These households either farm alone or join together and farm cooperatively. This research seeks to examine whether women have been adversely affected in the process of privatisation, asset ownership, or business development.
Library ResourceJanuary, 2004Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Moldova, Belarus, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Nauru, Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia, Oceania
This report explores how, across the world, the revenues from oil, gas and mining that should be funding sustainable economic development have often been misappropriated and mismanaged. Specifically, it analyses five major examples of this problem: Kazakhstan, Congo Brazzaville, Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Nauru.The report argues that in these countries, governments do not provide even basic information about their revenues from natural resources. Nor do oil, mining and gas companies publish any information about payments made to governments.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJune, 2004Eastern Europe, Europe, Central Asia
This study, perhaps the first of its kind in this region, is based on a study that explores the practice of casual sex among truck drivers, and commercial sex workers in the border areas of the Baltic region at a point of time, and, uses this evidence to extrapolate the potential impact on the spread of HIV/AIDS in these countries. While the threat of an HIV/AIDS epidemic cannot be taken lightly in any country of the Europe and Central Asia region, four countries - Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia - stand out as being particularly vulnerable.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2004Turkmenistan, Switzerland, Lithuania, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Italy, Poland, Russia, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Georgia, Hungary, Europe
FAO is conducting a series of regional and sub-regional workshops as part of the preparatory work for the country reporting to the Global Forest Resources Assessment update 2005 (FRA 2005). These regional workshops respond to requests made by many member countries during the global training session held at FAO Headquarters in Rome in November 2003.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchDecember, 2004Romania, France, North Macedonia, Switzerland, United States of America, Turkey, Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Europe
The focus of this exercise was on issues connected with a possible substantial increase in the agricultural loan asset portfolio of ProCredit Bank. This summary outlines the type of client who could be targeted by the bank – the core borrowing group, the ways in which the bank could market its services to the desired core clientele, the type of loans for which a demand is clear, the enterprise types for which credit-financed investment appears to be most profitable, the regional considerations and, finally, the personnel requirements within the bank.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2004Bangladesh, United States of America, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Germany, China, Guatemala, Indonesia, Grenada, Jamaica, United Kingdom, Pakistan, Colombia, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Philippines, Japan, Tunisia, Argentina, India, Russia, Bahamas, Brazil
This report shows a broad range of statistics pertaining to world food and agriculture. It presents, where appropriate, the differences between developed and developing countries, continents and regions. It is hoped that managers and policy-makers dealing with international issues relating to food and agriculture will find the tables useful.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2004Slovenia, Liechtenstein, France, Estonia, Switzerland, Lithuania, Croatia, Sweden, Germany, Ukraine, Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Austria, Finland, Slovakia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Albania, Poland, Latvia, Romania, Norway, Czech Republic, Europe
This report presents the results of an extra budgetary project which analyses similarities and common approaches in European national forest legislation. The forest laws of 23 countries have been examined in order to find out whether provisions are made to put into practice the following three legal issues: (1) reforestation obligations after logging through final cutting or loss of forest cover due to fire and natural calamities, (2) regulations concerning public access to forests and (3) public use of non-wood forest products occurring on forest land.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksSeptember, 2004Burkina Faso, Mauritania, Gambia, Mali, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Australia, Bolivia, Canada, Guinea, Niger, Cameroon, Mozambique, Laos, Philippines, South Africa, Uganda, Italy, Tanzania, Cambodia, India, Russia, Mexico
In recent years, local people and rural communities have assumed increasing prominence in strategies for natural resource management.This paper briefly reviews some of the central legal issues that are associated with this shift. In doing so, its goals are limited. It does not ad dress fundamental questions about when, where and what kind of management works, nor attempt to identify the political, social, economic and environmental ingredient s for success – subjects on which there is a huge, if still inconclusive, literature.
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