Women's employment in transition countries, notably Central and Eastern Europe has become increasingly informal and flexible. The first growing trend is that women are more involved in cross-border trade, known as 'suitcase' trade, often keeping women away from home for days or months. They buy mainly consumer and household goods usually unavailable in their home countries, to sell to street vendors on their return home. The second growing trend is women's involvement in sub-contracting, particularly work such as hand sewing for the textile and shoe industries.
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Library ResourceReports & ResearchOctober, 2002Slovenia, Liechtenstein, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Poland, Germany, Australia, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Eastern Europe
Library ResourceTraining Resources & ToolsReports & ResearchNovember, 2011Global
Climate change is increasingly being recognised as a global crisis, but responses to it have so far been overly focused on scientific and economic solutions. How then do we move towards more people-centred, gender-aware climate change policies and processes? How do we both respond to the different needs and concerns of women and men and challenge the gender inequalities that mean women are more likely to lose out than men in the face of climate change? This report sets out why it is vital to address the gender dimensions of climate change.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchAugust, 2001Mozambique, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Mali, Somalia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Sierra Leone, Western Asia, Western Africa, Global, Eastern Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa
Trade liberalisation processes impact differently on men and women due to the fact that men and women have different roles in production. Despite the fact that women are actively involved in international trade, WTO agreements are gender blind and as such have adverse impacts on women. The General Agreement in Trade and Service (GATS), for instance, provides for a level playing field in service provision between big foreign owned companies and small locally owned companies.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchPolicy Papers & BriefsFebruary, 2000Global
What evidence is there of gender inequalities in life outcomes between women and men? This report provides facts and figures that expose gender inequalities, providing evidence of the need to engender development. It offers an insight into the available gender statistics in the following areas: poverty, health, access to resources, education, globalisation, governance, conflicts and emergencies, and human rights. The Beijing Platform for Action (1995) highlighted the different needs of women and men, girls and boys.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchMay, 2007Southern Africa, Eastern Africa
There are multiple obstacles to the economic empowerment of women in Africa. For example, limited access to productive resources such as land, seed and fertiliser means that women may be unable to benefit from the expansion of trade in agricultural products. In fact, it has been calculated that agricultural productivity could increase by up to 20 percent if women's access to these resources were equal to men's.
Library ResourcePolicy Papers & BriefsJanuary, 2003Ethiopia, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa
This shadow report, produced by NEWA and EWLA, offers a critique of the Ethiopian government's CEDAW report by looking at three broad areas: economic and socio-cultural status of women, equality in marriage and family relations and violence against women. The report acknowledges the considerable efforts made by the Ethiopian government to address its CEDAW obligations, but cites weak enforcement, poor policy guidelines and a lack of institutional commitment as ongoing problems.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchFebruary, 2003Indonesia, Philippines, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia
How does the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture (AOA) affect the livelihoods of rural women in Asia? This paper, prepared on the occasion of the WTO-AOA review in 2003, analyzes the impact of the new trading rules imposed by the WTO on Asian peasants. It illustrates the inherent imbalances in the WTO-AOA's trade liberalisation policies which, among other things, flood local markets with highly subsidized agricultural imports from developed countries to the detriment of domestic agriculture.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJanuary, 2003Eastern Asia
This economic literacy pack, the third in this series, is a tool for educating local women's constituencies on trade rules and negotiations. It explores four main themes, firstly 'How the WTO Treats National Health Emergencies in the Rubric of Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)'. This section demonstrates how the agreement protects the patent interests of private pharmaceutical firms based in developed countries, while jeopardizing the public health of the poor in developing countries.
Library ResourceTraining Resources & ToolsSeptember, 1998Global
How can gender be mainstreamed into programmes concerned with the sustainable use and management of biodiversity? The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has produced guidelines on how to integrate gender analysis into biodiversity research. The central role played by women in the maintenance of rural lands, and changing gender roles and relations resulting from cost of living rises and increased migration, are highlighted.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJanuary, 2008Global
Because of their lower social and economic status, as well as physiological needs, women are often more vulnerable to nutritional problems. When it comes to sharing food resources in the home, women and girls can lose out. Indeed, the full realisation of the right to food for women depends on parallel achievements in the right to health, education, access to information and access to resources such as land.
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