Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger.
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Library ResourceReports & ResearchDecember, 2009
Library ResourceReports & ResearchPolicy Papers & BriefsDecember, 2008Vietnam, Eastern Asia, Oceania
After decades of war, with a dilapidated infrastructure and millions of people dead, wounded or displaced, Vietnam could have been considered a hopeless case in economic development. Yet, it is now about to enter the ranks of middle-income countries. The obvious question is: How did this happen? This paper goes one step further, asking not which policies were adopted, but rather why they were adopted. This question is all the more intriguing because the process did not involve one group of individuals displacing another within the structure of power.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchTraining Resources & ToolsFebruary, 2011Indonesia, Eastern Asia, Oceania
East Java is the second largest contributor to Indonesia's economy with a growth rate similar to national level and other major provinces in Java. Nevertheless, for a province that is expected to be a major economic center in the country, there has been very little change in the region's economic structure in the past 10 years. Since 1995, the share of industry and agriculture in the economy is almost unchanged. Furthermore, the growth in both of these two sectors has been low, despite the fact that industry was once the main driver of the East Java economy.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchPolicy Papers & BriefsDecember, 2011Azerbaijan, Europe, Central Asia
The objective of this study is to evaluate the World Bank Group's (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [IBRD], International Development Association [IDA], and International Finance Corporation [IFC]) effectiveness in promoting growth in agricultural productivity in Azerbaijan, and to derive lessons that may be relevant for the World Bank Group's future engagement in Azerbaijani agriculture.
Library ResourcePolicy Papers & BriefsAugust, 2015China, Eastern Asia, Oceania
As part of a national experiment in 2008, Chengdu prefecture implemented ambitious property rights reforms, including complete registration of all land together with measures to ease transferability and eliminate migration restrictions. A triple difference approach using the Statistics Bureau’s regular household panel suggests that the reforms increased consumption and income, especially for less wealthy and less educated households, with estimated benefits well above the cost of implementation.
Library ResourceAugust, 2014
Most efforts to trace the effects of
income inequality on growth have focused on redistribution.
However, empirical investigation has not substantiated
either the positive association of income inequality with
redistribution or the negative association of redistribution
with economic growth. The authors analyze the effects of
inequality in the broader context of social polarization.
They argue that social polarization, whether rooted in
Library ResourceJune, 2014
Modern political economy stresses
"society's polarization" as a determinant of
development outcomes. Among the most common dorms of social
conflict are class polarization, and ethnic polarization. A
middle class consensus is defined as a high share of income
for the middle class and a low degree of ethnic
polarization. A middle class consensus distinguishes
development successes from failures. A theoretical model
Library ResourceJanuary, 2015
If states would interact more synergistically with communities, they could tap local energies and resources for development-- and help create a development-oriented society and polity in the process. The authors analyze experience in several countries to identify the actions required for state-community synergies in development. Two actions that seem especially important: 1) Broadening the distribution of power within communities, to facilitate collective action and reduce the potential for local capture.
Library ResourceSeptember, 2013Mozambique
This Country Economic Memorandum reviews
the significant changes Mozambique underwent in the last
five years, specifying that to continue its rapid growth,
and reduce its high levels of poverty, the country will need
to adopt a new set of reforms. Such reforms, focused on
increasing the profitability of agriculture, and promoting
labor-intensive manufacturing activities, hold the best hope
to move poverty into prosperity. Three factors - increased
Library ResourceJune, 2013Tanzania
This report is the successor to the
Country Economic Memorandum for Tanzania prepared in 1996
(World Bank 1996). The 1996 memorandum focused on the
challenge of reforms and paid particular attention to the
impact of reforms on growth, incomes, and welfare in
Tanzania. The present report draws out lessons from
Tanzania's development experience of the past four
decades, with emphasis on the period since the last report,
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