The issues associated with economic instruments are complex and the main paper contains a detailed, technical discussion. This summary highlights some of the main points from that discussion. It is structured around the following issues:the water pollution problem the advantages of economic instruments pollution from industrial plants and sewage treatment works pollution from agricultural and other land practical considerationsconclusion and questions for consideration.
Search resultsShowing items 1 through 9 of 1156.
Library ResourceJanuary, 1997Europe
Library ResourceJanuary, 2009India, Southern Asia
Traditionally, agricultural diversification is referred to a subsistence kind of farming wherein farmers were cultivating varieties of crops on a piece of land and undertaking several enterprises on their farm portfolio. Household food and income security were the basic objectives of agricultural diversification. In recent decades, agricultural diversification is increasingly being considered as a panacea for many ills in the agricultural development of the India.
Library ResourceJanuary, 2003Mozambique, Sub-Saharan Africa
Recently, new community-level institutions have emerged in Zambézia province, Mozambique, through land rights registration. Numerous rural groups have delimited their acquired land rights and established community-level management systems. This paper assesses the rise of these ‘new’ institutions and whether they have replicated, replaced, or been added on to the existing pattern of state and nonstate institutions and processes.The new communities have registered large swathes of land, but have had had a limited impact on development processes.
Library ResourceJanuary, 2000South Africa, Lesotho, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Sub-Saharan Africa
This paper examines the current wave of land tenure reform in eastern and southern Africa. It discusses how far tenure reform reflects a shift in powers over property from centre to periphery. A central question is whether tenure reform is designed to deliver to rural smallholders greater security of tenure and greater control over the regulation and transfer of these rights.Policy conclusions include:
Library ResourceJanuary, 2001South Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa
Redistributive land reform in southern Africa is reviewed against the background of the recent land crisis in the region. The dilemmas created for governments and donors are described, as are attempts to grapple with them. Answers are sought to four questions: What has been the experience with land redistribution in the region over the last decade or so? What has been the impact on people's livelihoods? How are redistribution programmes expected to develop in future?
Library ResourceJanuary, 1995Namibia, Sub-Saharan Africa
Results from this study show that the over-used but under-researched association between grazing and land degradation in the Kalahari has been oversimplified. In typical Kalahari conditions, the ecological changes that have been brought about by grazing cannot be linked with more fundamental changes in ecosystem function. Basic soil processes appear relatively unaffected by grazing pressure outside the sacrifice zone, and there is no evidence to suggest that the resilience of the system has been affected through soil degradation.
Library ResourceJanuary, 2004
The author explores the socio-economic dimension of forest resource use and management in the Mahabharat hill track of Arghakhanchi district in west Nepal.Analysis focuses on:various attributes of forest resources use and variation between regions, socio-economic and demographic groupslocal forest management systems and practices forest resource use and its related managementeconomic status of households focusing on the poverty-environment nexus.Major findings and conclusions from the overall study include:the extent, depth and severity of poverty is high - the incidence of poverty is foun
Library ResourceJanuary, 2006Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Southern Asia, Eastern Asia, Oceania
Hundreds of millions of people in Asia are dependent on shifting cultivation, yet the practice has tended to be seen in a negative light and discouraged by policy makers. This document challenges prevailing assumptions, arguing that shifting cultivation – if properly practised – is actually a ‘good practice’ system for productively using hill and mountain land, while ensuring conservation of forest, soil, and water resources. Focusing on Eastern Himalayan farmers, it looks at whether there is a need for new, more effective and more socially acceptable policy options that help to improve shi
Library ResourceJanuary, 2016Algeria, Ethiopia
Population growth leads to growing land scarcity and landlessness in poor agrarian economies. Many of these also face severe climate risks that may increase in the future. Tenure security is important for food security in such countries and at the same time threatened by social instability that further accelerate rural-urban and international migration. Provision of secure property rights with low-cost methods that create investment incentives can lead to land use intensification and improved food security.
Library ResourceJanuary, 2004
Many countries receiving migrants are attempting to manage immigration by discouraging potential migrants through tighter controls and restrictions of benefits. This paper argues that this is not an optimal solution. Rather, the overall goal is to create a world in which migration is unnecessary because sufficient opportunity exists at home. The majority of people do not migrate, and they will only enjoy higher incomes if their countries prosper.
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