This paper provides an overview of land reform in South Africa from 1994 to 2011, with the focus on the land redistribution. The government policies and associated implementation since 1994 have not generated expected social and economic results for a number of reasons. Even where land has been transferred, it appears to have had minimal impact on the livelihoods of beneficiaries, largely because of inappropriate project design, a lack of necessary support services and shortages of working capital, leading to widespread underutilization of land.
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Library ResourceReports & ResearchPolicy Papers & BriefsMay, 2012South Africa, Southern Africa, Africa
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJune, 2012Global
Slum upgrading programs are being used by national and city governments in many countries to improve the welfare of households living in slum and squatter settlements. These programs typically include a combination of improvements in neighborhood infrastructure, land tenure, and building quality. In this paper, the authors develop a dynamic general equilibrium model to compare the effectiveness of alternative slum upgrading instruments in a second-best setting with distortions in the land and credit markets.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJune, 2012Cambodia
Cambodia's changing distribution of
income-related outcomes is consistent with the process of
transition from a planned to an open market economy, and the
accompanying growth of incomes. This transformation has
promoted better resource reallocation, expanded the spectrum
of gainful activities, and widened the distribution of
earnings. Aided by robust economic growth and improved
capacity for implementing public policies, Cambodia has seen
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJune, 2012Ethiopia
Stakeholders' perceptions of
opportunities and constraints to sustainable land management
in Ethiopia was assessed through interviews and a review of
secondary data. Stakeholders included farmers as well as
representatives of development agencies, agricultural
organizations, donors, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs),
and agricultural research systems. Stakeholders generally
perceive that the numerous, well-intentioned but piecemeal
Library ResourceReports & ResearchMay, 2012Vietnam
The policy reforms called for in the
transition from a socialist command economy to a developing
market economy bring both opportunities and risks to a
country's citizens. In poor economies, the initial
focus of reform efforts is naturally the rural sector, which
is where one finds the bulk of the population and almost all
the poor. Economic development will typically entail moving
many rural households out of farming into more remunerative
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