Proposed here is a new scheme for allocating international river water that accounts for the stochastic nature of water supply and the dynamic nature of its demand. The suggested scheme is expected to improve the efficiency of river basins' water allocation and the riparians' welfare.International river and lake basins constitute about 47 percent of the world's continental land area, a proportion that increases to about 60 percent in Africa, Asia, and South America.
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Library ResourceJanuary, 1995
Library ResourceJanuary, 1995
Attempts to achieve "more for the poor" through the use of indicator targeting may in fact mean less for the poor. The efficient use of a fixed budget for poverty reduction may require targeting. However, the use of indicator targeting, using fixed characteristics that are correlated with poverty to determine the distribution of expenditures, will tend to reduce the budget. Ignoring the budget reducing effects can reduce the welfare of the poor as they receive a greater share of a shrinking budget.
Library ResourceJanuary, 1996Sub-Saharan Africa
Report draws attention to the structure of landholding as a set of mechanisms through which demographic changes in agrarian societies can alter the natural environment: demographically-induced change in the structure of landholding: farm holdings generally become smaller as an ever-increasing number of households enter the agricultural work force and seek to derive their livelihood from this fixed resource base holdings tend to become more fragmented, not simply in the number of parcels operated but in the distances between parcels, as farmers look harder and farther for whatever bits and p
Library ResourceJanuary, 1996Rwanda, Sub-Saharan Africa
The objective of this technical paper is to shed insights on ways of reversing the spiraling decline of the land and the economy in rural Rwanda, with focus on the forces behind productivity decline in the Rwandan agricultural sector. The results are based on collaborative research between the Rwandan Ministry of Agriculture and Michigan State University.Among the key findings are that Rwandan farmers need to sustain and intensify their farming by pro-tecting the soil against erosion.
Library ResourceJanuary, 1995Sub-Saharan Africa
In urban areas of Cote d'Ivoire, human capital is the endowment that best explains welfare changes over time. In rural areas, physical capital especially the amount of land and farm equipment owned matters most.Empirical investigations of poverty in developing countries tend to focus on the incidence of poverty at a particular point in time. If the incidence of poverty increases, however, there is no information about how many new poor have joined the existing poor and how many people have escaped poverty.Yet this distinction is of crucial policy importance.