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Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksJanuary, 2002Vietnam
a comparative study of agrarian communities in Asia and AfricaPeer-reviewed publicationJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2001South-Eastern Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa, Asia, Vietnam
The devastating environmental effects of deforestation and the exploitation of other natural resources in the developing world have been well documented, yet their impact on local communities has received far less attention. This volume fills this gap by looking at how land degradation and deforestation are being addressed at the local level, where households have experienced the reduction of farm size and the decline of natural resources.
Library ResourcePolicy Papers & BriefsJanuary, 2002Nepal, India, Peru, Zimbabwe
Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as lack of access to credit, poor school quality, and labor market opportunities play equal or even greater roles in the decision to have children work. This study surveys the existing literature and, taking into account urban-rural divides, aims to shed light on the debate with empirical evidence from Nepal, Peru, and Zimbabwe.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJanuary, 2002Nepal, Africa, Bangladesh, Ghana, Malawi
This study examines the contributions of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) between 1993 and 2001 to analysis, outreach, capacity building, and training related to the role of rural finance in poverty reduction. The IFPRI multicountry research project on Rural Finance Policies for Food Security for the Poor involved data-intensive research by more than 14 research fellows on the impacts of access to rural financial services in countries.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchJanuary, 2002Brazil
Despite the importance of tropical moist forests for conserving biodiversity and storing carbon, forests continue to fall, because the private benefits of clearing land for agriculture far outweigh tangible economic gains from retaining forests. This report measures the financial disparity between forested and cleared land for small-scale farmers in two settlements in the western Brazilian Amazon where pastures are expanding and forests receding.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksJanuary, 2002
The 11 CGIAR genebanks conserve over 660,000 accessions (plant or seed samples) of crops grown mainly by poor people (such as cassava, millet, sorghum and cowpea), staple food crops grown throughout the world (such as rice, wheat and maize), and tree species used in agroforestry systems. This collection accounts for a sizeable share, perhaps 30 to 40%, of the unique entries in genebank collections worldwide.
Library ResourceJanuary, 2002Niger
In this paper, we develop an empirical model of an agro-pastoral system subject to high climatic risk to test the impact of rainfall variability on livestock densities, land allocation patterns and herd mobility observed at the community level. Also, because grazing land is a common-pool resource, we determine the impact of cooperation on these decision variables.
Library ResourcePolicy Papers & BriefsDecember, 2001
Since the late 1980s, Mexico has liberalized its agricultural sector, moving from a system of price supports, producer subsidies and consumer subsidies to a less distorting scheme in which market forces play a greater role. Coinciding with these agrarian and food policy reforms, the government has implemented the PROCAMPO system of direct payments to farmers. There is a general consensus that a direct payment program has the potential to be more efficient than a system of subsidies and supports.
Library ResourcePolicy Papers & BriefsJanuary, 2002
The world’s farmers will likely need to produce enough food to feed 8 billion people by 2025, and to do so they must have enough water to raise their crops. Yet farmers are already competing with industry, domestic water users, and the environment for access to the world’s finite supply of water. Will available freshwater meet the rapidly growing demands for household, industrial, and environmental needs and still provide enough water to produce food for a burgeoning population?
institutions and evidence of agroforestry technology adoptionPolicy Papers & BriefsDecember, 2001Southern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa, Mozambique
Successful adoption of natural resource management technologies requires that important fundamentals of property rights be established. Because disputes over property rights occur universally, the ability to successfully defend one's rights to property exercises a central influence on the tenure security necessary for technology adoption. However, defending rights to property rests upon the possession of evidence that is readily available and widely regarded as legitimate.
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