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Showing items 1 through 9 of 977.
  1. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    December, 2006

    Theory and seaborne measurements are presented for the near infrared (NIR: 700–900 nm) water-leaving reflectance in turbid waters. According to theory, the shape of the NIR spectrum is determined largely by pure water absorption and is thus almost invariant. A ‘‘similarity’’ NIR reflectance spectrum is defined by normalization at 780 nm. This spectrum is calculated from seaborne reflectance measurements and is compared with that derived from laboratory water absorption measurements. Factors influencing the shape of the similarity spectrum are analyzed

  2. Library Resource
    Reports & Research
    January, 2006
    Malawi, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa

    Malawi is facing increasing land scarcity and food insecurity for its large rural population and is in the midst of an on-going land policy reform process. This report asks how these reforms may affect women's land rights in a situation of increasing scarcity and competition for land. Reforms include the formalisation of customary land rights as private land rights as a way to ensure tenure security and equitable access to land. It warns that through this approach, women's rights may become increasingly marginalised.

  3. Library Resource
    Reports & Research
    January, 2006
    Niger, Western Africa, Middle Africa

    This study aims to identify how women's capacity to become more involved in decision-making at the local level can be strengthened, particularly in terms of access to natural resources. It also aims to identify the structures through which women secure their systems of production. It focuses on the situation in Niger, where women are increasingly excluded from dominant systems of production: in agricultural areas, they are increasingly excluded from agricultural production and in pastoralist areas, they have lost their herds and had to resort to agriculture.

  4. Library Resource
    Reports & Research
    January, 2007
    Southern Africa, Eastern Africa

    This paper presents an overview of key issues in the literature on gender justice in the sub-Saharan Africa region. Issues discussed include the exclusion of women from full citizenship status; gender inequalities in property relations, family relations and access to justice; and disregard for women's and men's sexual and reproductive health and rights.

  5. Library Resource
    Reports & Research
    January, 2006
    South Africa, Southern Africa, Eastern Africa

    Indigenous land tenure arrangements in South Africa have generally consisted of communal ownership. In this system, who benefited from the land depended on their status as family or clan head. The colonial regime dispossessed Africans of land in favour of European arrivals, or defined family property as ancestral property in which the senior males of the head family were taken as the owners with the rights to inherit. The post-apartheid government conceptualised acess to land for the previously disadvantaged as a human right.

  6. Library Resource
    Policy Papers & Briefs
    January, 2006
    Kenya

    Because of changes in some underlying factors, land is increasingly becoming a source of conflicts in Africa. We estimate the determinants of land conflicts and their impacts on input application in Kenya by using a recent survey of 899 rural households. We find that widows are about 13 percent more likely to experience pending land conflicts when their parcels are registered under the names of their deceased husbands than when titles are registered under their names.

  7. Library Resource
    January, 2006
    Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Southern Asia, Eastern Asia, Oceania

    Hundreds of millions of people in Asia are dependent on shifting cultivation, yet the practice has tended to be seen in a negative light and discouraged by policy makers. This document challenges prevailing assumptions, arguing that shifting cultivation – if properly practised – is actually a ‘good practice’ system for productively using hill and mountain land, while ensuring conservation of forest, soil, and water resources. Focusing on Eastern Himalayan farmers, it looks at whether there is a need for new, more effective and more socially acceptable policy options that help to improve shi

  8. Library Resource
    January, 2007
    Kenya, Uganda, Sub-Saharan Africa

    This working paper reviews historical and current factors and patterns affecting land use, land tenure, resource access, human settlement, and conflicts over resource access and tenure in the districts around Mt. Elgon in Kenya and Uganda. The paper draws on a series of interviews conducted with government officials in the districts along with other support sources such as paper maps and existing GIS databases.Based on this approach, the common findings from this study in the current setting of land tenure and land management are:

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