Climate change and recurrent drought in many of the world's dry places continue to inspire the search for economically attractive measures to conserve water. This study analyzes water conservation practices in irrigated agriculture in a sub-basin in North America's Rio Grande. A method is developed to estimate water savings in irrigated agriculture that result from public subsidies to farmers who convert from surface to drip irrigation. The method accounts for economic incentives affecting farmers' choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, water application, and water depletion.
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Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2012Northern America
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2014United States of America
BACKGROUND: Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) addresses the challenge of meeting the growing demand for food, fibre and fuel, despite the changing climate and fewer opportunities for agricultural expansion on additional lands. CSA focuses on contributing to economic development, poverty reduction and food security; maintaining and enhancing the productivity and resilience of natural and agricultural ecosystem functions, thus building natural capital; and reducing trade-offs involved in meeting these goals.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2013Greenland
This article reviews the level of current scientific understanding regarding the impact of future change in the large-scale climate-earth system on ecosystem services. Impacts from sea level rise, ocean acidification, increases in ocean temperature, potential collapse of the thermohaline circulation; failure of the South Asia monsoon; the melting of sea ice, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet; changes in water availability; and Amazonia forest dieback, are considered.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2013Brazil
Technology introduction and the intensive use of resources, particularly in smallholder farming systems, are at the core of debates about future food security and sustainable livelihoods. In Brazil, land use changes promoted by competing agricultural chains require a search for alternative modes of production for family farms. We analyse the technical and economic viability of intensification of dairy farming by smallholders in the “Balde Cheio” (Full Bucket) programme.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2015Guatemala
Cloud forest in the Central Highlands of Guatemala provides important ecosystem services for the Q’eqchi’ Maya but has been disappearing at an increasing rate in recent decades. This research documents changes in cloud forest cover, explores some contributing factors to deforestation, and considers forest preservation and food security implications for Q’eqchi’ communities. We used a transdisciplinary framework that synthesized remote sensing/GIS analysis of land cover change, focus group dialogs, and surveys.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2016Ecuador
During the past three decades, the Pisque watershed in Ecuador's Northern Andes has become the country's principal export-roses producing area. Recently, a new boom of local smallholders have established small rose greenhouses and joined the flower-export business. This has intensified water scarcity and material/discursive conflicts over water use priorities: water to defend local-national food sovereignty or production for export.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2010Brazil, United States of America, China, South America, Europe
Az élelmiszerárak növekedése 2006–2008 között a világ egyes térségeiben zavargásokhoz és a politikai stabilitás megrendüléséhez vezetett. Különösen fejlődő országokban súlyos a helyzet, ahol a legszegényebb rétegek jövedelmük döntő hányadát élelmiszerekre költik. Az agrárpiacokon a kereslet vált meghatározóvá, mennyiségi (humáncélú és ipari felhasználás rohamos növekedése) és minőségi értelemben (élelmiszer-fogyasztás szerkezetének változása).
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2015Brazil, Africa
Among the world’s continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchDecember, 2004Guatemala, Latin America and the Caribbean
Poverty in Guatemala is high and deep. In 2000, over half of all Guatemalans lived in poverty. About 16 percent lived in extreme poverty. Available evidence suggests that poverty in Guatemala is higher than in other Central American countries. Although poverty has fallen over the past decade, its trend recently declined due to a series of economic shocks during 2001 and 2002. The drop of poverty incidence since 1990 is slightly slower than what would have been predicted given Guatemala's growth rates, suggesting that growth has not been particularly pro-poor.
Library ResourceReports & ResearchPolicy Papers & BriefsJuly, 2016Tanzania, Japan, Malaysia, Madagascar, China, Namibia, Indonesia, Australia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Argentina, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Brazil, New Zealand, Central America, Northern America, Oceania
To meet carbon emissions targets, more than 30 countries have committed to boosting production of renewable resources from biological materials andconvert them into products such as food, animal feedand bioenergy. In a post-fossil-fuel world, an increasingproportion of chemicals, plastics, textiles, fuels and electricity will have to come from biomass, which takesup land. To maintain current consumption trends theworld will also need to produce 50–70 percent more foodby 2050, increasingly under drought conditions and onpoor soils.
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