Land–Lake Linkage and Remote Sensing Application in Water Quality Monitoring in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA | Land Portal

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Date of publication: 
February 2021
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© 2021 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article.

The state of water quality of lakes is highly related to watershed processes which will be responsible for the delivery of sediment, nutrients, and other pollutants to receiving water bodies. The spatiotemporal variability of water quality parameters along with the seasonal changes were studied for Lake Okeechobee, South Florida. The dynamics of selected four water quality parameters: total phosphate (TP), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total suspended solid (TSS), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) were analyzed using data from satellites and water quality monitoring stations. Statistical approaches were used to establish correlation between reflectance and observed water quality records. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data (2000 and 2007) and Landsat Operational Land Imager (OLI) in 2015 in dry and wet seasons were used in the analysis of water quality variability in Lake Okeechobee. Water quality parameters were collected from twenty-six (26) monitoring stations for model development and validation. In the regression model developed, individual bands, band ratios and various combination of bands were used to establish correlation, and hence generate the models. A stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) approach was employed and the results showed that for the dry season, higher coefficient of determination (R2) were found (R2 = 0.84 for chl-a and R2 = 0.67 for TSS) between observed water quality data and the reflectance data from the remotely-sensed data. For the wet season, the R2 values were moderate (R2 = 0.48 for chl-a and R2 = 0.60 for TSS). It was also found that strong correlation was found for TP and TKN with chl-a, TSS, and selected band ratios. Total phosphate and TKN were estimated using best-fit multiple linear regression models as a function of reflectance data from Landsat TM and OLI, and ground data. This analysis showed a high coefficient of determination in dry season (R2 = 0.92 for TP and R2 = 0.94 for TKN) and in wet season (R2 = 0.89 for TP and R2 = 0.93 for TKN). Based on the findings, the Multiple linear regression (MLR) model can be a useful tool for monitoring large lakes like Lake Okeechobee and also predict the spatiotemporal variability of both optically active (Chl-a and TSS) and inactive water (nutrients) quality parameters.

Authors and Publishers

Author(s), editor(s), contributor(s): 

Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad
Moncada, Angelica
Kent, Samuel
Melesse, Assefa M.


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