The ASTI (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators) dataset contains open-access data and analysis on agricultural research investment and capacity in low and middle-income countries. This information is fundamental to understanding the contribution of agricultural science and technology (S&T) to agricultural growth. Indicators derived from such information allow the performance, inputs, and outcomes of agricultural S&T systems to be measured, monitored, and benchmarked. These indicators assist S&T stakeholders in formulating policy, setting priorities, and undertaking strategic planning, monitoring, and evaluation. They also provide information to governments, policy research institutes, universities, and private-sector organizations involved in public debate on the state of agricultural S&T.