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Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new ROMANOV Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. After defeating Germany in World War II as part of an alliance with the US (1939-1945), the USSR expanded its territory and influence in Eastern Europe and emerged as a global power. The USSR was the principal adversary of the US during the Cold War (1947-1991). The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the decades following Stalin’s rule, until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics.

Following economic and political turmoil during President Boris YELTSIN's term (1991-99), Russia shifted toward a centralized authoritarian state under the leadership of President Vladimir PUTIN (2000-2008, 2012-present) in which the regime seeks to legitimize its rule through managed elections, populist appeals, a foreign policy focused on enhancing the country's geopolitical influence, and commodity-based economic growth. Russia faces a largely subdued rebel movement in Chechnya and some other surrounding regions, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.

Russia is a semi-presidential federation.

Government of Russia Resources

Exibindo 16 - 20 de 1046
Library Resource
Legislação
Novembro, 2016
Rússia

Article 7.1 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Owners, possessors, tenants, including lease holders, of agricultural land plots with area of 100 ha and over with a view of conservation and reproduction of soil fertility shall ensure planting of no less than 10 percent of total area with legume grasses”.

Amends: Regional Law No. 725-KZ “On ensuring fertility of agricultural land”. (2013-07-16)

Library Resource
Legislação
Novembro, 2016
Rússia

Article 18 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Transfer of precious agricultural land plots to other land categories shall be authorized if the aforesaid agricultural land plots are destined for location of federal, regional and municipal structures in accordance with land-use planning documentation”.

Amends: Regional Law No. 532-KZ “On regulation of land relations”. (2009-07-23)

Library Resource
Legislação
Novembro, 2016
Rússia

Article 5 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Local government shall set up advisory councils of indigenous peoples abazin, attached to local government, in the areas of their traditional living, with a view of protection of traditional customary rights of indigenous peoples abazin”.

Amends: Regional Law No. 27-RZ “On guarantees of rights of indigenous peoples abazin”. (2011-07-05)

Library Resource
Legislação
Novembro, 2016
Rússia

Article 3 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Regional Legislative Assembly shall be responsible for determination of the categories workers of forestry and hunting management that are granted the right of service allotment of agricultural land parcels”.

Amends: Regional Law No. 19-zs “On regulation of land relations”. (2015-02-25)

Library Resource
Legislação
Novembro, 2016
Rússia

Article 2 shall be amended to add the following wording: “Territorial land-use planning scheme shall contain provisions related to territorial planning and mapping of objects intended for location at regional and inter-municipal levels”.

Amends: Regional Law No. 1-RZ “On composition and elaboration of regional land-use planning scheme”. (2015-06-04)

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