Land tenure is theoretically safe for communities and smallholders. However, the emergence of state and private "mega-projects" in agriculture (e.g. Prosavana), forest plantations (e.g. Portucel), mining (e.g. Coal Exploitation in Tete - Vale, Gas Exploration in Palma - ENH and Anadarko), construction of public infrastructure (Maputo-Katembe Bridge, Moamba Dam, etc.) has results in the increase in the number of land conflicts between the private sector and the communities as well as between communities and the Government.
On July 26, 2018, farmers in Xai-Xai, Mozambique, achieved a milestone. They met to formalize their new farmers’ association, elect leaders, and prepare a petition to the local government for land. The association, christened Tsakane, which means “happy” in the local Changana language, was the culmination of six years of resistance to a Chinese land grab that had sparked protest and outrage.
Successful agricultural development initiatives associated with poverty reduction have seldom included large-scale land-based investment. Feed the Future focuses on smallholder-led agricultural growth as the principal engine of poverty reduction and food security. Investment in agriculture of all sizes, however, can be constructive and is encouraged by the U.S.