The environment is the basic determinant of the nature and productivity of rangeland eco-systems. Physical environmental factors, which include climate, topography and soil, determine the potential of rangeland to support certain types and levels of land use. Within the limits set by this potential, the influence of fire and biological environmental factors (grazing, tree cutting and shifting cultivation) results in different types of vegetations and levels of productivity. Therefore, understanding of how the various environmental factors affect rangeland vegetation is crucial to successful rangeland management. However, it should be noted that the influence of climate and soils, have important effects for potential rangeland production and the management of rangeland resources. Medicinal plants also have a significant value in the indigenous knowledge of the pastoralists
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The Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program (ESGPIP) is a USAID- funded five-year project designed to reduce constraints to increased productivity of small ruminants in Ethiopia through appropriate interventions.