The purpose of this study is to analyse how to produce a balance between the design and implementation of "green" facilities. It focusses on providing insight into the conditions under which decisions take place, conditions which have to be satisfied if a balance between design and implementation is to be realised and is to influence the way we create and maintain "green" facilities. The study shows that the management of the "green" facilities is indissolubly linked with the design and the implementation.
Chapter 1 , provides as introduction , general background information with regard to the relationship between, on the one hand "being busy on paper", and on the other the ''actuel production". This is followed by a first indication of the specific problems that exist with regard to the "green" facilities.
The importance of the study is illustrated by a number of developments. The limitations and the most important assumptions of the study are described in order to outline the scope of this study.
The special contribution of this study is to present a framework of solutions which aim to improve the interaction between a design and its implementation.
Form this framework specific solutions can be derived.
Chapter 2 describes the problem more concretely as illustrated by day to day experiences. Attuning levels will be different depending upon the way in wich the interaction between design and implementation is dealt with. The problems of bringing design more into agreement with the implementation, and vice versa, are categorised.
The thesis is mainly aimed at the analysis of the process of interaction between design and implementation in relation to creating and maintaining "green" facilities in a manner that links with the functions of these facilities. Starting from this analysis indications are derived about the conditions which have to be fulfilled to make possible a more integral approach of the design of the "end product" and the sequence of events necessary for its production on the ground (construction and maintenance) .
When approaching this study, the connection between design and implementation is placed in perspective against the total of activities necessary to create and maintain "green" facilities. The decision-making which precedes implementation is used to enable an understanding of the relationship between design and implementation.
In relation to this, the study has used an administrative model developed by Kampfraath. The difference between the traditional way of thinking and this administrative way of thinking is outlined.
The need to allow for interaction is identified by means of this model and translated into requirements for the decision-making which must precede implementation. These needs are based on the conditions which govern the decision-making process. In the case study of "Breda" changes which have taken place with regard to the administrative approach are described as contributions to the improvement of the balance between design and implementation.
Chapter 3 describes previous studies with regard to the links between design and implementation which have not been concerned with the provision of "green" facilities. There is no evidence that the problem of the relationship between design and implementation has been studied in relation to the "green" sector.
Chapter 4 presents a conceptual framework on basis of which decision making in the administration of "green" facilities can be analysed. A difference is made between administrative system and administrated system.
An important feature of this framework is the distinction between, on the one hand, the decision- making processes and their results, and on the other the conditions which influence these processes.
The basic administrative concerns are described. The decision-making process is related to the concept of "level of perfection". The rules which govern the administrative process determine the course the decision-making processes should take.
Chapter 5 describes the realization of "green" facilities in terms of the administrative framework. The design is considered as creating a situation to be achieved; the implementation is seen as undertaking the construction and maintenance activities that have been decided upon. This finally results in the development on the ground of the planned situation .
The HOW of the administration appears to be less dependent on a specific situation.
With regard to the "green" facilities a difference is made between primary care (aimed at determination of the needs) and derived care (aimed at production of the facility).
In the framework of primary care, construction and maintenance are linked together.
In the derived care phase, the development of the decision-making process is separately analysed in relation to construction and maintenance. The development of the design is seen as part of the work-flow control. In relation to construction, explicit starting points, derived from future maintenance, are determined.
The concept of "level of perfection" implies ideas for the improvement of the methods of administration. It is also assumed that a link between design and implementation is embodied in the decision-making process. Various ideas for improving the balance between design and implementation are made more precise, in particular where they concern the extent of forseeing, the extent of integration, the extent of feedback as well as the extent of systematique and consistency.
The rules which govern the administrative process supply leading concepts for the integration of design and implementation into the "decision-making" with regard to "green" facilities.
Chapter 6 presents a study of the development of design. The designing of "green" facilities is described by a number of characteristics. The functional aspects of "green" facilities are laid down. The terminology used is discussed separately. Special attention is paid to five different aspects of the design process, viz.
- communication and coordination process
- quality determining process
- information processing
- creative process
- decision-making process
Making the design process explicit is a very important prerequisite for the improvement of the interaction between design and its implementation. To gain a better insight into the design-activities, a structure model is used. This is based on the one hand on the principle of general to detailed work, and on the other on the principle of distinguishing between the various steps in the plan development. To phase the design activities, starting conditions and results at each phase are used. Design contributions are required within the framework of primary care as well as within the framework of derived care. The dimensions of "the level of perfection" can be used as criteria to test and judge the decision-making process during the period of the design.
The design is a final decision where it concerns the way in which construction takes place, but it is a framework within which to set decisions where it concerns the maintenance of a site.
Chapter 7 describes a study of the implementation. It looks separately at the administrative system, construction and maintenance. The possibilities and limitations inherent to the implementation play an important part in the way in which the construction activities are administred. However, in relation to the administration of the maintenance activities the difference between the actual and the initially planned situation is a concept of great importance.
The work flow control depends on the way in which, by monitoring the feed-back of the results is realized. The maintenance costs per year appear to be of a relatively higher importance than the initial construction costs. The design as a decision holds various implications for the administration of construction and maintenance acitivities.
Chapter 8 presents a study of the management of "green" facilities ("green" management). This management stipulates the policy whereby integration of all the aspects, that play a part in the entire work flow (site planning, construction and maintenance of the "green" facilities), has to be achieved.
The approach that has been taken to management of forests and nature reserves is used as a background. The "green" management-planning system is considered as a managerial aid which enables decisions to be taken that fit within the framework of the basic administrative concerns. Via this managerial aid the starting points and responsibilities of the design and implementation staff can be brought closer together.
The thinking in terms of joint responsibility for the "green" management has a positive influence on the "level of perfection". Management directives, on the basis of the aims and functions of the "green" facilities, form the framework for the administration of the maintenance activities. Through this managerial point of view the design and implementation staff become more involved in each others work.
Chapter 9 describes the case study of Breda. The implementation of the "Haagse Beemden" project has had an important influence on the decision-making process regarding "green" facilities in the town of Breda. Requirements for the improvement of the "level of perfection" are considered under the dimensions of WHAT and HOW.
The changes in the method of administration are related to the demands which resulted from the concept of "the level of perfection". This is illustrated by three examples, viz. the development of:
- the "green" facilities round the main road - the Emerparklaan
- the "green" management plan for the estate zone
- the "green" facilities in the residential district Kesteren
These three examples of interaction of design and implementation put emphasis on: the implementation, the "green" management and the design.
In the framework of primary care, the construction and maintenance are approached more integrally, whilst in the framework of derived care the relationship between design and implementation finds more expression. This is particularly so in terms of: balance of resources and construction/maintenance capacities, assuring the availability of capacities, taking care that the available capacities function and the work flow control.
Special attention is paid to the administrative control, because changes in the interaction between design and implementation will have to be initiated directed and controlled there. In regard to this a number of conditions have changed.
Finally a number of remaining problems are described.
Chapter 10 presents the conclusions and recommendations of this study. The most important conclusions can be summarized as follows:
- Phasing the design is animportant condition to integrate the
experiences of the implementation.
- The various elements which make up the implementation process will get lost if they are not set down and translated into starting points for the production of new "green" facilities as well as for the maintenance of existing facilities.
- Management aimed at the optimal functioning of "green" facilities is considered to be an integral aspect governing the work of the design and implementation staff and may therefore never be considered to be a specialisation on its own.
- The improvement of the level of interaction between the design and implementation of "green" facilities should be rooted in the decision-making preceding the implementation.
- Applying the administrative framework to the "green" facilities gives an insight into the mutual relationship of the decision-making ,processes preceding the implementation.
- The concept of the "level of perfection" provides a number of operational aids to determine the needs for ensuring interaction between design and implementation.
- Improvement of the "level of perfection" is of importance to both design and implementation staff. In this respect it is important to distinguish the main features from "fill in packets"
- The following conditions are important if an improvement in the interaction between design and implementation is to be actieved:
The willingness of the design and implementations staff to accept each others leading concepts.Organisational rules must be aimed at the integration of the design of the end result and the way the realization takes place.An information flow, relating to the fine tuning between design and implementation, is essential.The "green" management planning system as managerial aid can function as a lever for the improvement of the interaction between design and implementation.The starting point for changing the conditions will have to be the mutual relationship of these conditions.- In the framework of the primary care, construction and maintenance will have to be approached together when decisions are being made with regard to the relation between results and funds. The "green" structure plan is then indispensable as an integral framework.
- The availability of design and implementation capacity will , in close relation together, have to be derived from the ascertained needs and financial means as decided upon in the primary care.
- If the functioning of the available capacity is to be improved, it requires on the one side the implementation staff to contribute to the development of the design, and on the other the design staff to contribute to the administration of the implementation activitities in particular where it concerns maintenance.
- In the framework of work flow control, the design is a final decision in as much as it concerns the construction, and a framework setting decision where it concerns maintenance.
- The administrative control (meta administration) is considered to be the key in respect to the efforts for improving the interaction between design and implementation. Decisions must be made which balancing results are to be achieved in relation to the availability of conditions for this purpose.
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