The objective of this study was to determine the impact of livestock grazing management systems on soil and vegetation dynamics under different environmental conditions of Botswana. Soil and vegetation were randomly sampled along transects located in three ranches and adjacent communal grazing land in 2009 and 2010. Our results showed that grazing management systems did not consistently affect soil texture, organic carbon, pH and bulk density. The soil characteristics such as soil carbon and clay content were strongly associated with variation in rainfall, and contributed to improved rangeland condition characterised by high herbaceous biomass and low bush encroachment. Livestock grazing management systems do not impact soil and vegetation properties differently as indicators of degradation are observed in both grazing systems. Thus, there is a need to develop a sustainable land management model that will improve soil carbon, increase herbaceous biomass and generally improve the condition of rangelands in Botswana.
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